Flooding In Nigeria: Action Plans to Mitigate Future Flooding.

Odion Ibadin*, Salma Adam* and Chiwendu Obed*


According to the United Nations, despite contributing the least to it, Africa is the continent worst affected by climate change. Even though the COP27’s agenda outlines the demand for compensation for loss and damages different from the funds for adaptation and mitigation, that demand has mostly been met with silence by developed countries. Governments have repeatedly failed to meet their commitments to the $100 billion fund for climate adaptation and mitigation in the developing world — for the mess their own industries caused.

Africa urgently needs investment in adaptation infrastructure — such as flood prevention systems — to stave off the disasters that destroy communities and cripple economies. In what is fast becoming an annual occurrence, many parts of Nigeria have experienced flooding and the correlating loss of land, lives, and livelihoods.

In 2012, rivers burst their banks and submerged vast lands in 30 states, killing over 400 people and displacing 1.3 million others. That disaster resulted in an estimated $17 billion in damage, according to Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

  • In 2021, Mohammed Mohammed, the former head of NEMA, said a total of 277,555 people were affected by floods, and 158 were killed in 2019.

What have Organizations and The Nigerian Government Done So Far?

  • The Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs announced that the Federal Government distributed 12,000 Metric tonnes of food and non-food items to disaster-stricken areas in Anambra State (South) or Jigawa state (North).

Pat Utomi said that Nigeria must set about constructing a network of dams down the Niger and Benue Rivers to avert floods in the future.

  • USAID is providing $ 1 million in emergency humanitarian assistance in response to the flooding in Nigeria. In a report published on USAID's site, disaster experts will continue to monitor the situation, assess needs, and determine the additional assistance needed.


The flood sequence can be traced back to the release of water from the Lagdo dam, bad drainage systems, and lack of proper enforcement of environmental laws, amongst others. Notably, The Federal Government bears a larger portion of the responsibility to mitigate and respond to natural disasters. This article seeks to provide action plans for the Federal Government of Nigeria to mitigate future flooding in Nigeria:

  • Funding for Natural Disasters: Currently, 2.3% derivation of funds is set aside for ecology and disaster management, the sum of N336B for the first half of 2022, which is not up to the N2.6T damage caused by the 2012 floods. Hence, A federal relief assistance fund mechanism jointly managed by the federal and state governments, with a funding plan, should be put in place separate from the ecological funds.

Climate change has been seen as a white man problem, but the adverse effect still falls back to our continent. The Federal Government of Nigeria should work hand-in-hand with national or international bodies to develop effective high-tech early-warning systems to mitigate future flooding, and the aspiring new administration needs to prioritize Climate Change in their manifesto ahead of the 2023 elections, as this would help to mitigate future flooding. Encouraging corporate organizations to consider climate matters and affect them in their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Individuals are also to be properly sensitized to the danger of living outside areas mapped as residential areas during natural disasters, as they are prone to be heavily affected by these disasters.



Clean Technology Hub is a hybrid hub for research, policy development, community engagement, & incubation of clean energy & climate resilience ideas in Nigeria.

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Clean Technology Hub

Clean Technology Hub is a hybrid hub for research, policy development, community engagement, & incubation of clean energy & climate resilience ideas in Nigeria.